Posts tagged ‘sangiovese’
Gianpaolo Paglia, Poggio Argentiera (Photo ©Tom Hyland)
During my most recent trip to Toscana in May, I spent some time with Gianpaolo Paglia, co-proprietor of Poggio Argentiera, one of the top estates in the Morellino di Scansano zone, in the area known as the Maremma. I’ve admired his wines for several years, so it was a great pleasure to finally meet him, taste his new releases in the cellar as well as see his vineyards.
Paglia is a fascinating example of a producer who has altered his style. While he once made wines that were aged in small oak barrels, he has now changed his approach. He got rid of the barriques at his winery and now only uses large casks for maturation. He firmly believes that tradition is the way to go when producing wines in his area – as well as other zones in Tuscany. By that he means not only aging in large casks, but also the varieties used, so for his Morellino di Scansano, he uses only local varieties such as Ciliegiolo and Alicante to blend with Sangiovese, opting not to include international grapes such as Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot or Syrah.
As Paglia drove me to one of his vineyards, he was only too happy to tell me about his winemaking philosophy.
GP: “There’s much better wine that can be made here if you stop following that kind of model (small oak). We don’t do those wines anymore and I can see the huge potential that there is.
“I think there are a lot of people who consciously or unconsciously doing that (moving away from producing international wines). Colleagues were coming to taste my wine at the last VinItaly. What is drawing them back is the fear that the market doesn’t want those wines (oaky, modern wines). They say, ‘I don’t want to make those types of wines (international styles), but that’s what the market wants.’ The market doesn’t want that at all.
The Maremma is a place where you can make beautiful, true Mediterranean wines without having to show the muscle, without all this new oak, without all this body from concentration. Just let the wines be what they are without forcing them. That can really show the true potential. And I can tell you that those wines are successful in the market as well, contrary to what they think. I’m proving that.
“We have had great success in the market and there are other people who said, ‘I was waiting for that.’ Especially the people in the trade. They said, ‘I don’t like the wines with oak, but that’s what the market wants.’ Actually, it’s not true. You ask those people what they like to drink and they tell you, white wines and sparkling wines. That’s because they don’t like heavy reds.
“We’ve been through that. I was at a wine dinner last recently. People who were there included local doctors, lawyers, notaries, retired professsional people, all of whom have a passion for wine. They’re not in the wine business. Several of the wines were light or pale garnet in color and people loved those wines. They told me, these are the wines we want to drink.”
“This is what can be done here. These wines are all successful and all demand a good price and are all true to the terroir.”
“I have received more accoaldes than ever this year. I think a lot of people will notice that and make wines like this. Once that happens, that’s good news for this area, because once you remove this structure of oak, the terroir really emerges in the wines.
“The more producers who make wine in this way, the more Scansano has an identity. Stop using a lot of Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah. It’s easier to work this way, because you are not following any model, you are following nature. That’s how the wines comes. OK, it’s not dark in color, but who cares? If the color’s not there, it’s not there.
“You go back to tradition and you make amazing wines. It’s like a pendulum. We’ve gone too far one way and now we’re going back.”
It’s only been for a short time that wines with small oak have been made here in Tuscany. They were made in a different way for hundeds of years. You can do a lot in ten years. It takes a bit of money as well as encouragement. But money is constantly being spent on a lot of things.
“Replace all the Cabernet, Merlot and Syrah and graft them over or replant Sangiovese. You can do that and reshape the image of your area. It takes a bit of vision, not a lot, just a bit.”
One of Paglia’s vineyards in the Scansano zone (Photo ©Tom Hyland)
I asked Giampaolo about the so-called gurus who write for certain publications or websites who see themselves as opinion makers. Don’t they have a lot of influence on consumers and the way wines are made?
GP: “Perhaps, but there isn’t all the power there. Yes, for some people. But the vast majority of people don’t read that, they’re not interested. If you make the wine with a strong character from that particular area, people understand that. If something is true, if something is real, whether it’s a tomato or a bottle of wine, you feel that. And I can see that more and more and more.
“I recently started selling wines at Majestic, a retail chain in England. These stores have thousands of labels from all over the world. 200 shops, they move a lot of wine. We are selling the regular Morellino, made with Sangiovese and Ciliegiolo, so no international varieties, nothing to appeal to the international markets.
“People that buy the wine, they do not read Parker. They taste the wine, they see that is is real. They like it because this wine reminds them of something. Maybe they’ve been to Tuscany, they can connect with the place.
“You can only do this if the wine is real. Because if the wine is full of Cabernet or Merlot, it doesn’t connect to the place, it doesn’t do anything, it doesn’t connect.
“People love that. Give them something different. We notice that. Don’t give them what you think they want.
“I understand if you produce millions of bottles. If you’re somebody like Jacob’s Creek from Australia, you make wine a certain way. That’s a commodity. But we’re not in the same business.
“Take the wines as they are. Present them for what they are and people will see that you believe in them. People will taste them and see that they are real. They might not be to the liking of 100% of the people, but what is?
“People want to try something original. If you open a bottle of wine, you want, ‘Oh, this is the bottle of wine I tasted the last time and it tastes of something, it tastes of that place. It doesn’t taste like something else.’
“People who say that they have to follow the fashion (of making international wines) … it’s all in their minds. It just takes someone to show they can do it and they follow.”
We all owe a debt to Gianpaolo Paglia for making wines that reflect tradition, that show a sense of place. It’s true that there are many other producers that do the same; it’s just that they are not as outspoken on this topic as Paglia. But they share the same vision. As he says, “the pendulum is swinging back.”
It seems to me that the only way that Italy will continue to sell more wines in the world market is to make wines that are authentic. Bravo to Gianapolo Paglia and hundreds of other producers for understanding that!
Text and photos ©Tom Hyland, 2012
Vineyard at Fattoria San Felo near Magliano
Over the past two decades, the producers from Morellino di Scansano in southwestern Tuscany have been producing a beautiful array of red wines in various styles, from offerings that have soft tannins and tasty cherry fruit that are best enjoyed within a year or two of the vintage to more-full bodied wines that can age for a decade or more. Even more impressively, these wines have remained fairly priced.
The Morellino di Scansano district is located in the lower portion of the Maremma, a somewhat wild (until recently) stretch of coastal Tuscany. Just southeast of the city of Grosseto, this area contains a number of different soils from sandstone to calcaire to clay and rocks. The topography changes quite a bit from west to east, as vineyards in the western reaches of this district – not far from the sea – sit at 30-100 feet above sea level, while the elevation becomes higher the further east or inland you go; some plantings are at 1500 feet above sea level. Generally the wines from the western part of the zone are relatively fruity with soft tannins and are meant for early consumption – these examples of Morellino di Scansano are charming wines and among the most typical of this area. Meanwhile the wines from the center of the district – near the cities of Scansano and Magliano – along with those from the far eastern reaches are richer with higher acidity and firmer tannins; these offerings can age for 10-15 years from the best vintages.
As with most red wines from Tuscany, Morellino di Scansano is made primarily from the Sangiovese grape. The regulations here call for a minimum of 85% of this variety, which is higher than even Chianti Classico (80% minimum Sangiovese) or any other Chianti wine (75%). Morellino, which meaning “little morel”, referring to the high acid morel cherry, is the local synonym for Sangiovese in this district. Other grapes that are used to blend with Sangiovese in this wine include local varieties such as Ciliegiolo, Canaiolo and Colorino along with international varieties such as Cabernet Sauvignon or Merlot.
When Morellino di Scansano was designated as a DOC wine in 1978, there were only 10 producers in the area who grew their own grapes or purchased them from 36 growers who were members of the local cooperative. Not long after, as the reputation of this district as a high quality area for Sangiovese, many producers from outside the district started to purchase land here and produce their own wines. This includes some of the finest vintners from other Tuscan zones such as Montepulciano (Poliziano), Chianti Classico (Fonterutoli) and Montalcino (Castello Romitorio, et al). Certainly the notoriety of such distinguished producers as these helped greatly when the Morellino producers sought the coveted DOCG classification, which was awarded to Morellino di Scansano as of the 2007 vintage. Today in 2011, there are more than 200 wine firms in Morellino di Scansano.
Prices, as mentioned above, are quite reasonable with the basic Morellino bottlings coming in at retail prices of $12-16 on US retail shelves, while the finest Riserva bottlings, such as the Fattoria Le Pupille “Poggio Valente” selling for $30-$35. This last wine is among the finest bottlings of Morellino di Scansano each year; offering excellent depth of fruit and ideal balance and structure, this wine can easily age 12-15 years from most vintages, especially the most recent releases of 2007 and 2008.
Here is a short list of the finest producers of Morellino di Scansano:
Fattoria Le Pupille
Fattoria La Querciarossa
Az. Agr. Ugolini
Massi di Mandorlaia
Terre di Fiori – Tenute Le Coste
Az. Agraria Santa Lucia di Scotto Lorenzo
Fattoria San Felo
Terre di Talamo
White variety from Abruzzo and Marche. Generally aged in stainless steel, though some vinters barrel age it, achieving a creaminess. Pear and apple aromas.
Lovely red variety of Campania, literally meaning “red feet,” a descriptor for the birds that sit on the vines when they eat the ripe berries. High acid, light tannins and charming fruit flavors of raspberry, cranberry and black cherry. Primarily used as a blending varietal; in small percentages (less than 15%), it cuts the aggressive tannic bite of Aglianico in the great Campanian red, Taurasi. It is also the primary variety in the medium-bodied Lacryma Christi del Vesuvio Rosso.
One of Liguria’s most important white varieties with flavors of pineapple and pear with notes of herbs (often rosemary).
Red variety of Friuli with big tannins and deep color and flavors of black fruits. Used only by a few producers and often in blends.
The most widely planted white variety in Alto Adige, this has flavors of apples with a touch of spice. Examples vary from light, crisp and refreshing to more serious bottlings with deep fruit concentration and distinct minerality (such as the top examples from producers such as Cantina Terlano, Cantina Tramin and Alois Lageder.)
Wildy popular white variety grown in several regions of Italy, with the finest bottlings coming from the cool northern regions of Alto Adige and Friuli. Flavors of apple, pear and dried flowers with most examples being quite light and simple. A few producers make single vineyard or special selection bottlings that are more complex. (Known as Pinot Gris in France and other countries.)
Known almost everwhere else in the world as Pinot Noir, this is a red variety with moderate tanins, cherry/strawberry fruit and high acidity. A few examples from Piemonte and Tuscany, but the best in Italy are from Alto Adige.
Red variety of Puglia, with deep color, black fruits and plenty of spice. Generally found in southern Pugila and often bottled on its own. DNA related to Zinfandel of California.
White variety from Veneto and Friuli used in the production of the sparkling wine of the same name. Flavors of white peach and lemon, aged in steel tanks.
The name for Sangiovese in the town of Montepulciano (used in the wine Vino Nobile di Montepulciano.)
The complete name of this variety is Refosco dal Peduncolo Rosso – or “Refosco with a red stalk.” Yields wines of big spice, red fruit and distinctive tannins.
Charming white variety of Friuli that produces light to medium-bodied wines with high acidity and flavors of pear, lemon, chamomile and dried flowers.
One of the major red varieties of the Valpolicella district with deep color and good fruit (red cherry) intensity and moderate tannins.
Rarely seen red variety grown near Asti in Piemonte that makes a lightly spicy, high acid red.
Red variety of Umbria, grown only in the Montefalco area. Known for its intense tannins, Sagrantino is even more tannic than Nebbiolo. Cherry fruit and distinct spiciness as well. Sagrantino is made in both a dry and sweet (passito) version.
One of Italy’s most famous and widely planted red varieties, this is best known for its use in three famous Tuscan reds: Chianti, Vino Nobile di Montepulciano and Brunello di Montalcino. High acid, garnet color and fresh red cherry fruit along with notes of cedar; today some modernists have tweaked Sangiovese to deepen the color and add spice and vanilla from small oak barrels. Sangiovese is also planted in Umbria, Marche and Emilia Romagna.
Known as Sauvignon Blanc throughout the rest of the world, this white variety is found most famously in Friuli and Alto Adige, where it produces assertive wines with bracing acidity and flavors of asparagus, pea and freshly mown hay. Also grown along the coasts of Tuscany.
Red variety from Friuli that produces lighter reds with cherry, currant fruit, high acidity and light tannins. Also known as Vernatsch.
Red variety of Friuli with big tannins and spice. Only a few producers work with this grape.
Red variety of Campania with lively acidity, dark berry fruit and moderate tannins. Usually a blending variety, but also used to make a lightly sparkling red wine.
Red variety of Puglia with deep purple color and big tannins. Usually part of a blend, but sometimes bottled on its own. Interestingly, the name of the grape is loosely transalted as “the back of a donkey,” perhaps because of its productivity in the vineyard.
Brunello di Montalcino is one of the most famous red wines produced anywhere in the world. Made entirely from Sangiovese – known as Brunello in the Montalcino area – Brunello is one of the longest-lived red wines of Italy, with most bottlings drinking well fro 12-15 years, while the finest examples from the best estates in the top vintages lasting as long as 25-30 years.
Brunello di Montalcino – and the lighter, more approachable Rosso di Montalcino – are the only Tuscan reds that are regulated as being produced solely with Sangiovese. A Brunello must be aged for a minimum of two years in oak barrels, though the size of the barrel is not mentioned. This gives winemakers freedom; some use the traditional botti grandi, large casks that hold anywhere between 2000 to 6000 liters, while other producers prefer barriques, small barrels that hold 225 liters (other still, prefer tonneau, 500-liter casks).
This means a wide variety of styles of Brunello, with the traditional wines aged in large casks offering flavors of red cherry, currant , cinnamon and cedar, while the more modern bottlings focus on black cherry, vanilla and spice. Traditional producers include Biondi-Santi, Il Poggione and Talenti, while the modern producers include Fanti, Valdicava and Donatella Cinelli Colombini.
As this is a famous red that can age for decades, prices are not inexpensive. Expect to pay between $60-$80 for most current bottlings of Brunello. The price is fair when you consider that a Brunello di Montalcino cannnot be released in the market place until the fifth year after the harvest; thus the 2004 bottlings are now being released in 2009.
The Consorzio of Brunello producers rates each vintage on its quality, from one star (poor) to five stars (exceptional). 2004 is a five-star vintage; others include 1997, 1995 and 1990. The 2007 vintage has also been rated five stars; these wines however will not be released until 2012.
Given the fame of this wine, many new estates have been established over the past 10-15 years. In the 1970s, there were fewer than 40; today the number exceeds 140. Many are quite small, owning only 2-3 acres of vineyards and producing less than 5000 bottles of Brunello per vintage.
Given the number of producers making Brunello today, here is a short list of some of the finest:
- Il Poggione
- Le Chiuse
- Sesta di Sopra
- Il Palazzone
- Casanuova delle Cerbaie
In 2008, investigations into an alleged scandal looked into the question of whether certain producers have or had been introducing varieties other than Sangiovese into the wine. Some members of the media have said this has been going on for years and point to the softer acidity of the wines as well as deeper color. As Sangiovese has lively acidity for a red variety and the color is generally garnet, these critics point to the deep ruby red color as well as soft acidity that a grape such as Merlot or possibly Syrah or Cabernet Sauvignon was added to certain wines.
To date, a few dozen producers have been investigated and a few estates declassified their Brunellos in 2003, a sign to some that that particular wine was not 100% Sangiovese. Yet nothing has really been proven.
It seems safe to say that while this may be happening, it is not the practice of the majority. It seems also safe to say that what makes Brunello di Montalcino so distinct is its requirement of 100% Sangiovese. It seems unlikely that there will be any changes to this law anytime soon. In my opinion, there certainly does not need ot be any change regarding Brunello as a wine made purely from Sangiovese.
As for a Rosso di Montalcino, there are no requirements for wood aging; the wine can be released as soon as one year after the vintage. A few producers also make a Reserva bottling of Brunello di Montalcino; these wines cannot be released in the market before the sixth year following the vintage.
Read more about some of the best producers of Brunello di Montalcino at my website
BUYING GUIDE TO TUSCAN WINES
I have just put together a collection of my reviews of the latest wines from Tuscany. These reviews can be found in a special Tuscan issue of my newsletter, Guide to Italian Wines; this is a 30-page pdf document. This issue contains reviews of 50 different Brunellos from the 2004 vintage, as well as reviews of wines from six different estates in Bolgheri (including three vintages of Sassicaia), as well as 40 new bottlings of Chianti Classico, a dozen examples of Vino Nobile di Montepulciano and even a couple newly released bottlings of Vin Santo.
The price for this special issue is only $10 US. I will email the issue to you upon payment (either check or Paypal), so if you are interested, please email me and I will reply with payment instructions. This is a must for a Tuscan wine lover!
Everyone loves Tuscany it seems, so it follows that everyone loves Chianti. It is arguably the most-loved red wine in the world, if you think about it. Bordeaux and Burgundy may be more famous and regal, but the price of many examples of those wines keep them from being appreciated by so many people. Thus Chianti, historically a moderately priced wine, is seen in many more markets across the globe, giving more consumers the chance to embace this lovely Tuscan red.
The name Chianti has been around since the year 1100, when it was first used to describe a wide area in Tuscany’s central zone. The Etruscans who began viticulture along the region’s west coast, soon spread their efforts north and east, planting Sangiovese near the town of Siena, Pisa and Arezzo. It was in 1085 that the Ricasoli family began to produce wine at Castello di Brolio in Gaiole, one of Tuscany’s most famous estates.
Given the success of Chianti wine, farmers outside the center of Tuscany, wanting to cash in on the popularity of this name, started to produce Chianti throughout the region. Eventually the heart of the Chianti territory- the hills between Florence to the north and Siena to the south – became known as Chianti Classico, and today there are seven sub-zones that use the name Chianti with a geographical suffix, such as Chianti Colli Fiorentini (“the hills of Florence”) and Chianti Colli Senesi (“the hills of Siena).
The DOCG regulations are slightly different for Chianti Classico as compared with the other Chianti zones; basically the minimum amount of Sangiovese in Chianti Classico is 80%, as compared with 75% for the other zones. In the past, only local varieties, such as Canaiolo or Mammolo for red or Trebbiano or Malvasia for white were allowed in a Chianti blend, but the regulations were changed in the 1980s. Several producers, most notably Antinori and Le Pergole Torte, started to add Merlot or Cabernet Sauvignon to the blend, leaving out traditional varieites. At first, these wines such as Tignanello, had to be called vino da tavola (table wines), as they did not conform to the Chianti regulations. But with the success of these wines and the more common use of international variteties from other area producers, the laws were changed. White varieties were banned from the Chianti blend a few years ago and today, Chianti can be made with small amounts of Merlot, Cabernet Sauvgnon, Syrah or other varieties; it can also be 100% Sangiovese. (A Riserva bottling of Chianti must be aged longer than a normale bottling; in the case of Chianti Classico Riserva, the wine must be aged for a minimum period of two years and three months in wood.)
Top estates of Chianti today include:
- Castello di Brolio (Barone Ricasoli)
- Castello di Cacchiano
- Castello di Bossi
- Badia a Coltibuono
- Castello di Volpaia
- Castello Monsanto
- Castellare di Castellina
- San Felice
- Le Miccine
- Rocca di Montegrossi
CHIANTI COLLI FIORENTINI
- Castello di Poppiano
- San Michele a Torri
Chianti was traditionally a rustic red; while that adjective can cover a lot of flaws, rustic really was an apt decriptor for old-style Chiantis. Made from Sangiovese, which is high in acidity with moderate tannins, these wines were aged in large casks, giving them a cedary quality. Usually displaying notes of brown herbs, dried cherry and tomato as the wines aged, these were simple, charming wines meant for food; even today, the traditional style of Chianti (such as the excellent wines from Badia a Coltibuono) works beautifully with any number of foods such as veal, pork or pastas with tomato-based sauces.
However, modern methods both in the vineyards and in the cellar have changed the style of many Chiantis (as of course have the blending laws). The wines today are deeper on color, while many are oakier, especially the ones aged in French barriques.
Perhaps the biggest difference between today’s Chiantis and the older botlings is the fact that today, yields are much lower. Left to its own, Sangiovese can be uncontrollable, often getting 12 tons to the acre. This means a lot of wine, but wine that is thin and too acidic. Yields are often cut to 4-5 tons per acre these days (sometimes lower) and the wines are much fuller and riper with excellent Sangiovese fruit character.
While the style of wines can be argued, there is no question that today’s Chiantis are better quality offerings. Here are thoughts on this subject from Francesco Ricasoli, owner of Castello di Brolio; “The wines of today are without discussion much better wines from the ones of the past. Chianti Classico today is tracking its way for the future with innovation but still keeping its roots with Sangiovese and preserving its own style that makes it unique worldwide. It cannot be “duplicated” elsewhere in the world.”
Whatever your preference for Chianti – traditional style versus modern style – the best bottlings do present the charm of Sangiovese, with its lively acidity and fresh red cherry fruit in a nicely balanced wine that everyone loves.