Posts tagged ‘nerello mascalese’
The wines of Sicily – especially the red wines – have been getting a lot of attention lately, but chances are they won’t prepare you for the distinctive charms of the red wines from the Etna district. “An island within an island” is how Giuseppe Benanti, one of the zone’s most distinguished producers, calls the Etna wine district, which should give you an idea of how unique these offerings are.
There are some lovely white wines produced in Etna and even a rosé or two, but the reds wines from here are the lead story. They are produced from two varieties, Nerello Mascalese and Nerello Cappuccio. The former is the prevalent variety, as the DOC regulations call for 80% of this type with 20% of Cappuccio; the truth is that hardly any of these reds have that exact mix. Most producers want the richness and tannins of the Mascalese, while the Cappucccio is added for a little color; thus you may find some Etna Rossos to be almost entirely Nerello Mascelese.
Many of the vines are quite old and are planted in the albarello (little tree) system; this way of farming means that these plants are quite close to the earth and thus retain ground heat for optimum ripening. Many of these vines are at or near 100 years of age, with a few being from the 1870s and 1880s, meaning they are pre-phylloxera vines that are still producing fruit. You now also see some new plantings with the more traditional wire trellis.
The red wines here are direct products of their soils, often black lava rock, originating from centuries of eruptions of Mount Etna. The finest are quite Burgundian in style and that fact has attracted vintners such as Marco de Grazia, one of America’s leading importers of premium Italian wines as well as Frank Cornelissen, a former Alpine climber from Belgium. For Cornelissen, his approach in making wine from Etna is as exacting as scaling a mountain; he adds no sulfites and can only make great wines with precision farming and winemaking. His has been at this for ten years now and produces biodynamic wines of great complexity and finesse – they are sublime and are superb representations of the territory.
Cornelissen has extremely strict winemaking practices. As well as not adding anything to the wines, he does not use wooden barrels or even steel tanks for fermentation, preferring terracotta pots in his aim for purity and precision. His Munjebel and Magma reds (the last from his oldest vineyards) offer beautiful red cherry and wild strawberry fruit, medium-weight tannins, lively acidity and subtle spice. They can be consumed (as can the finest reds of Etna) over the course of 7-25 years, depending on the wine and the vintage.
Here is a short list of the finest reds wines from Etna:
Tenuta del Terre Nere (Marco de Grazia)
- Santo Spirito
- Quota 600
- Serra della Contessa
Tenuta di Fessina
While a few of these wines are priced over $100 retail in the US market, many are in the $30-$50 range, with a few priced even lower. You can purchase the normale bottling from Terre Nere for a mere $14; this is a medium-weight offering with polished tannins and appealing fruit that is a nice introduction to Etna reds. As a group, the red wines from Etna are almost to themselves among Italian reds. Truly the only comparison in terms of terroir, style, complexity, grace and finesse among Italian wines are the finest offerings from the Barolo zone. Talk about rare company!
One final note: Several vintners here told me that 2008 was one of their finest vintages to date – more than one used the word “extraordinary.” Deeply concentrated with ideal acidity, the 2008 Etna reds are the ones that display all of the finest characteristics of the wines from this singular district.
There is a part of Sicily where the wines are made almost solely by producers that style the wines primarily for themselves. This is important, as these bottlings are not market-driven, the vintners can truly make hand-crafted wines that represent the local terroir. These are wines that have a soul; these are the wines from Etna.
I was reminded of that fact earlier this week when Steven Alexander, wine director of Spiaggia Restaurant in Chicago (one of the country’s most ambitious Italian wine programs), invited me to a seminar with two producers from Etna: Alberto Graci and Frank Cornelissen. Each producer makes small lots of regional wines based on local varieties such as Carricante (white) and Nerello Mascalese and Nerello Cappuccio, which give them their unique identity.
Alberto Graci presented two bottllngs of Etna Rosso DOC that by law contain 80% Nerello Cappuccio and 20% Nerello Cappuccio. The 2008 Etna Rosso from Graci has beautiful young garnet color with lovely aromas of roses and cranberries. Medium-full with very good acidity, the wine has moderate tannins and very subtle wood. Graci commented that he ages this wine solely in large casks, which he believes is the best way to produce a wine that represents what Etna is all about. This wine sells for around $32-$35, which I think is a fair price, given the quality and style of this wine. This is not about making a powerhouse wine, rather it’s about finesse and elegance.
His second wine, Quota 600 – named for the elevation in meters of this vineyard – has the same varietal mix, but has riper bing cherry fruit and more distinct spice; the wine finishes with a nice hint of clove. Again the acidity is quite lively and the wood notes are very subtle. This wine will have a longer life; I expect this to be at its best in 7-10 years versus 5-7 for the regular bottling. The $70-$75 price tag reflects the work that went into this wine as well as limited availability.
Graci pointed out how different the Etna district is from the rest of Sicily. While much of the island is quite warm (or hot) and harvest starts in August, the surroundings at 600 to 1000 meters (1970 to 3280 feet) in Etna mean conditions vary more dramatically here, with some years cold and rainy (2009) and some, such as 2006, extremely hot with drought conditions. Thus harvests vary from August to November, acidity levels are different and the resulting wines have a more marked identity with a specific year. This is clearly one of the secrets of Etna wines.
We then moved on to the wines of Cornelissen; these bottlings are a marriage of Etna varieties and terroir along with the personal philosophy of the winemaker himself. Frank Cornelissen is from Belgium and produced his first Etna wines in 2001. He is a vintner that believes he will never quite understand all the complexities of nature, so he does his best to observe and learn the hidden mysteries provided by Mother Nature; he also thinks that he must respect these enigmas.
Frank tasted out four wines, starting with his white, named Munjebel Bianco. The word Munjebel is a variation of two words – one Italian and one Arabic – that combined are a variation themselves of the word mongibello (“beautiful mountain”), the ancient name for Mount Etna. His Bianco, labeled as non-vintage, but essentially a 2007 wine, is deep amber color or what many refer to today as an “orange wine.” It is made from several varieties, incuding Carricante, Grecanico Dorato and Coda di Volpe. Frank noted that while Coda di Volpe is best-known in Campania, it is planted in good quantity in Etna; the variety adds finesse as well as backbone to this wine (these vines, incidentally, are on their own roots).
Cornelissen does not use any wood, nor does he use stainless steel, which makes his winemaking practice different from Graci (and just about anyone else!); he uses both anforae (clay pots) as well as demi-johns. I asked him if this wine had been aged in anforae and he replied that it indeed had, but promptly added, “I am not an anforae producer, I am a wine producer.” Clearly he wants to be known for his wines and not as someone who is following a trend. He also commented that “I am not a biodynamic producer. I am a natural winemaker. I add nothing.” In fact, Cornelissen does not even add sulfur dioxide.
His Contadino Rosso is a charming red made from 70% Nerello Mascalese with the additional 30% comprised of Alicante Bouchet, Nerello Cappuccio and even a small amount of white grapes. Loaded with fresh Queen Anne cherry aromas, tart acidity and extremely soft tannins, the wine displays remarkable concentration and a lengthy finish. This sells for anywhere between $35-40 and is a gorgeous wine that charms you instead of hitting you over the head.
His Munjebel Rosso (from 2006 and 2007, though labeled as non-vintage) is 100% Nerello Mascalese with aromas of dried cranberries, sherry, sundried tomato, rhubarb and turmeric. Medium-full, the wine has refined tannins, excellent concentration and outstanding complexity. This wine should drink well for 10-12 years – perhaps longer – and sells for around $50 per bottle.
The ultimate Cornelissen wine is Magma5 Riserva, a 100% Nerello Mascalese from a single cru, planted in 1893. Deep garnet with a light edge, this has unique aromas of soy, dried cherry and sundried tomato and offers remarkable concentration. The tannins are subtle, the acidity is quite lively and overall there is a delicate spice throughout with a great deal of finesse. This should be at its best in 10-12 years and I can best describe it as a singular, almost mysterious wine. It’s well made with impeccable balance, so it’s certainly not an experiment, yet it is a meticulous wine. I’m afraid at $300 a bottle (or more), it’s a bit rich for my blood, but what a wonderful experience to taste this rarity.
“My winemaking is about expressing the terroir of Etna. I go about it the easiest way, the simplest way,” Cornelissen explains. Like a great artist, he makes brilliance seem easy, even though we know it is not. Here’s to Alberto Graci, Frank Cornelissen and many other vintners from Etna for staying the course.
Ancient variety of Calabria; black cherry fruit and firm tannins. A few producers, most notably Librandi are working with this grape.
One of Italy’s most widely planted white varieties, this found in several regions, including Tuscany, Lazio, Sicily, Umbria and Basilicata. There are several clones and subvarieties of Malvasia. Generally produces a lighter, high acid white, but it can also be used for sweet wines, as in Malvasia di Lipari in Sicily.
Red subvariety of Malvasia found in Tuscany and Pugila. Generally used in blends for acidity (Salice Salentino in Puglia, e.g.)
White variety of Calabria, used often to produce dessert wines. Notes of pear and honey.
Red variety of Tuscany used in Chianti and Vino Nobile di Montepulciano. Deep color and good acidity. Almost always used as part of a blend.
Red variety of Trentino. Deep color and moderate tannins. Marzemino wine is mentioned in Mozart’s opera, Don Giovanni.
One of the principal red varieties used in the Valpolicella district. Brisk acidity and firm tannins are the key trademarks of the variety.
Red variety found in Sardinia with light color and tannins. Bottled on its own as a stand-alone variety and also used in blends.
The leading red variety of the Abruzzo region – Montepulciano d’Abruzzo – is the best-known example – the variety is also found in Marche and a few other regions. Deep color and plenty of spice – often notes of tobacco.
White variety found in several regions of Italy, perhaps best known in Piemonte for Moscato d’Asti (frizzante) and Asti Spumante (bollicine). Gorgeous aromatics of peach, apricot and honey.Usually fermented with a bit of residual sugar to make a lightly sweet wine. There are also excellent examples of Moscato found in Sicily, most notably in Pantelleria and Noto.
One of the most important subvarieties of Moscao, this is found in Alto Adige, where it is usually fermented dry.
Red subvariety of Moscato found in Alto Adige. Gorgeous aromas of rose petals, raspberry and strawberry. Wines are lightly sweet.
Found in several regions, from Trentino to Sicily (yes, a few producers in sunny Sicily work with this variety!), this has aromatics of pear, peach and apple and is usually made in a lightly sweet style.
The great red variety of Piemonte and one of Italy’s most important red varieties. The only grape used in the production of Barolo and Barbaresco, Nebbiolo has aromas and flavors of currant, red cherry, orange peel and tar. Quite tannic, so most wines made from Nebbiolo age quite well. Also found in the neighboring region of Lombardia, where it is planted in the Valtellina district and known there as Chiavennasca.
Important red variety of Puglia, literally meaning “black bitter.” Principal grape used in Salice Salentino; also bottled on its own. Deep color, big spice and firm tannins.
Red variety that is the lesser component (20%) of the Etna Rosso red of Sicily.
Red variety that is the principal component (80%) of Etna Rosso. Deeper color and more body that Nerello Cappuccio.
Arguably the most important red variety of Sicily, Nero d’Avola has flavors of marascino cherry with deep color, moderate acidity and tannins. Good examples of Nero d’Avola can be made at various levels; the more full-bodied examples offer more spice.
Red variety found in small plantings in the Valpolicella district. Masi is the leading proponent of this variety, which has more tannins than most of the other red varieties used in the production of Amarone.
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